Supporting Interview Analysis with Autocoding (HICSS 53)

Abstract: Interview analysis is a technique employed in qualitative research. Researchers annotate (code) interview transcriptions, often with the help of Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS). The tools available today largely replicate the manual process of annotation. In this article, we demonstrate how to use natural language processing (NLP) to increase the reproducibility and traceability of the process of applying codes to text data. We integrated an existing commercial machine–learning (ML) based concept extraction service into an NLP pipeline independent of domain specific rules. We applied our prototype in three qualitative studies to evaluate its capabilities of supporting researchers by providing recommendations consistent with their initial work. Unlike rule based approaches, our process can be applied to interviews from any domain, without additional burden to the researcher for creating a new ruleset. Our work using three example data sets shows that this approach shows promise for a real–life application, but further research is needed.

Reference: Kaufmann, A., Barcomb, A., & Riehle, D. (2020). Supporting Interview Analysis with Autocoding. In Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2020), pp. 752-761.

Download: The paper is available a PDF file.

Managing Commercial Conflicts of Interest in Open Source Foundations (ICSOB 2019)

Abstract: When companies opt to open source their software, they may choose to offer the project to an open source foundation. Donating the software to an open source foundation offers a number of advantages, such as access to the foundation’s existing tools and project management. However, in donating the software, the company relinquishes control of the software and grants other foundation members—including competitors—the same rights to the software. Using a multiple-case study research approach, this paper examines how foundations manage conflicts of interest in the open sourcing donation scenario. We find that foundations primarily use a set of well-defined mechanisms to prevent such conflicts from arising, and that the use of these mechanisms can depend on the foundation type.

Keywords: Open source foundations, sponsored open source, commercial open source, open source software, conflicts of interest

Reference: Weikert, F., Riehle, D., & Barcomb, A. (2019). Managing Commercial Conflicts of Interest in Open Source Foundations. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Software Business (ICSOB 2019). Springer Verlag, pp. 130-144.

The paper is available as a PDF file.

Industry Requirements for FLOSS Governance Tools to Facilitate the Use of Open Source Software in Commercial Products

Abstract: Virtually all software products incorporate free/libre and open source software (FLOSS) components. However, ungoverned use of FLOSS components can result in legal and nancial risks, and risks to a rm’s intellectual property. To avoid these risks, companies must govern their FLOSS use through open source governance processes and by following industry best practices. A particular challenge is license compliance. To manage the complexity of governance and compliance, companies should use tools and well-de ned processes. This paper investigates and presents industry requirements for FLOSS governance tools, followed by an evaluation of the suggested requirements. We chose eleven companies with an advanced understanding of open source governance and interviewed their FLOSS governance experts to derive a theory of industry requirements for tooling. We list tool requirements on tracking and reuse of FLOSS components, license compliance, search and selection of components, and architecture model for software products. For practical relevance, we cast our theory as a requirements speci cation for FLOSS governance tools. We then analyzed the features of leading governance tools and used this analysis to evaluate two categories of our theory: FLOSS license scanning and FLOSS components in product bills of materials.

Keywords: Open Source Software, FLOSS, FOSS, Open Source Governance, FLOSS governance tools, company requirements for FLOSS tools.

Reference: Harutyunyan, N., Bauer, A., & Riehle, D. (2019). Industry Requirements for FLOSS Governance Tools to Facilitate the Use of Open Source Software in Commercial Products. Journal of Systems and Software vol. 158 (2019), 110390.

A preprint of the paper is available as a PDF file. This article is an expanded version, per invitation, of our OSS 2018 paper.

Open Source License Compliance in Software Supply Chains

Abstract: Almost all software products today include open-source components. However, the obligations that open-source licenses put on their users can be difficult or undesirable to comply with. As a consequence, software vendors and related companies need to govern the process by which open-source components are included in their products. A key process of such open-source governance is license clearance, that is, the process by which a company decides whether a particular component’s license is acceptable for use in its products. In this article, we discuss this process, review the challenges it poses to software vendors, and provide unanswered research questions that result from it.

Keywords: Open source licenses, open source license compliance, software supply chain, product model

Reference: Riehle, D., & Harutyunyan, N. (2019). Open-Source License Compliance in Software Supply Chains. In Fitzgerald B., Mockus A., Zhou M. (eds) Towards Engineering Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) Ecosystems for Impact and Sustainability. Springer, Singapore, pp. 83-95.

A preprint of the paper is available as a PDF file and as a web page. Alternatively, you can pay Springer for the final version.

Getting Started with FLOSS Governance and Compliance in Companies (OpenSym 2019)

Abstract: Commercial use of open source software is on the rise as more companies realize the benefits of using FLOSS components in their products. At the same time, the ungoverned use of such components can result in legal, financial, intellectual property, and other risks. To mitigate these risks, companies must govern their use of open source through appropriate processes. This paper presents an initial theory of industry best practices on getting started with open source governance and compliance, focusing on private companies. Through a qualitative survey, we conducted and analyzed 15 expert interviews in companies with advanced capabilities in open source governance. We also studied practitioner reports on existing practices for introducing FLOSS governance processes. We cast our resulting initial theory in the actionable format of best practice patterns that, when combined, form a practical handbook of getting started with FLOSS governance in private companies.

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Why Do Episodic Volunteers Stay in FLOSS Communities?

Abstract: Successful Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects incorporate both habitual and infrequent, or episodic, contributors. Using the concept of episodic volunteering (EV) from the general volunteering literature, we derive a model consisting of five key constructs that we hypothesize affect episodic volunteers’ retention in FLOSS communities. To evaluate the model we conducted a survey and received responses from over 100 FLOSS episodic volunteers. We observe that three of the constructs (social norms, satisfaction and community commitment) are all positively associated with volunteers’ intention to remain, while the two other constructs (psychological sense of community and contributor benefit motivations) are not. Furthermore, exploratory clustering on unobserved heterogeneity suggests that there are four distinct categories of volunteers: satisfied, classic, social and obligated. Based on our findings, we offer suggestions for projects to incorporate and manage episodic volunteers, so as to better leverage this type of contributors and potentially improve projects’ sustainability.

Keywords: Community management, episodic volunteering, open source software, volunteer management

Reference: Barcomb, A., Stol KJ, Riehle, D., & Fitzgerald, B. (2019). Why Do Episodic Volunteers Stay in FLOSS Communities? In Proceedings of the 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2019), pp. 948-959.

The paper is available as a PDF file.

Uncovering the Periphery: A Qualitative Survey of Episodic Volunteering in Free/Libre and Open Source Software Communities (Article)

Abstract: Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) communities are composed, in part, of volunteers, many of whom contribute infrequently. However, these infrequent volunteers contribute to the sustainability of FLOSS projects, and should ideally be encouraged to continue participating, even if they cannot be persuaded to contribute regularly. Infrequent contributions are part of a trend which has been widely observed in other sectors of volunteering, where it has been termed “episodic volunteering” (EV). Previous FLOSS research has focused on the Onion model, differentiating core and peripheral developers, with the latter considered as a homogeneous group. We argue this is too simplistic, given the size of the periphery group and the myriad of valuable activities they perform beyond coding. Our exploratory qualitative survey of 13 FLOSS communities investigated what episodic volunteering looks like in a FLOSS context. EV is widespread in FLOSS communities, although not specifically managed. We suggest several recommendations for managing EV based on a framework drawn from the volunteering literature. Also, episodic volunteers make a wide range of value-added contributions other than code, and they should neither be expected nor coerced into becoming habitual volunteers.

Keywords: Community management, episodic volunteering, free software, open source software, peripheral developer, volunteer management

Reference: Ann Barcomb, Andreas Kaufmann, Dirk Riehle, Klaas-Jan Stol, and Brian Fitzgerald. “Uncovering the Periphery: A Qualitative Survey of Episodic Volunteering in Free/Libre and Open Source Software Communities.” Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 6, no. 9 (September 2020), pp. 962-980.

The paper can be downloaded as a PDF file.

User Experience Design in Software Product Lines

Abstract: User experience design is an important part of software product development, and yet software product line engineering has largely ignored this topic. This paper presents a set of industry best practices for user experience design in software product lines. We conducted multiple-case case study research using two different product lines within the multinational company Siemens AG: in a healthcare software division and in an industrial automation software division. We performed a preliminary exploratory study that will serve as a baseline for future research in the design, implementation, and management of user experience design in the context of software product lines. Practitioners can use our findings and the resulting best practices to improve their user experience design, particularly within
healthcare and industrial automation software product lines.

Keywords: User experience design, UXD, user interface design, software product lines, SPL, engineering best practices, case study research, handbook method

Reference: Harutyunyan, N., & Riehle, D. (2019). User Experience Design in Software Product Lines. In Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2019), pp. 7503-7512.

The paper is available as a PDF file.

The QDAcity-RE Method for Structural Domain Modeling Using Qualitative Data Analysis

Abstract: The creation of domain models from qualitative input relies heavily on experience. An uncodified ad-hoc modeling process is still common and leads to poor documentation of the analysis. In this article we present a new method for domain analysis based on qualitative data analysis. The method helps identify inconsistencies, ensures a high degree of completeness, and inherently provides traceability from analysis results back to stakeholder input. These traces do not have to be documented after the fact, but rather emerge naturally as part of the analysis process. We evaluate our approach using four exploratory studies.

Keywords: Domain modeling, Domain model, Requirements engineering, Requirements elicitation, Qualitative data analysis

Reference: Kaufmann, A., & Riehle, D. (2019). The QDAcity-RE method for structural domain modeling using qualitative data analysis. Requirements Engineering, vol. 24, no. 1 (March 2019), pp. 85-102.

The paper is available as a PDF file.

The Patch-flow Method for Measuring Inner Source Collaboration

Abstract: Inner source (IS) is the use of open source software development (SD) practices and the establishment of an open source-like culture within an organization. IS enables and requires developers to collaborate more than traditional SD methods such as plan-driven or agile development. To better understand IS, researchers and practitioners need to measure IS collaboration. However, there is no method yet for doing so. In this paper, we present a method for measuring IS collaboration by measuring the patch-flow within an organization. Patch-flow is the flow of code contributions across organizational boundaries such as project, organizational unit, or profit center boundaries. We evaluate our patch-flow measurement method using case study research with a software developing multi-industry company. By applying the method in the case organization, we evaluate its relevance and viability and discuss its usefulness. We found that about half (47.9%) of all code contributions constitute patch-flow between organizational units, almost all (42.2%) being between organizational units working on different products. Such significant patch-flow indicates high relevance of the patch-flow phenomenon and hence the method presented in this paper. Our patch-flow measurement method is the first of its kind to measure and quantify IS collaboration. It can serve as a base for further quantitative analyses of IS collaboration.

Keywords: Inner source, internal open source, inner source measurement, patch-flow, open source, open collaboration, software development collaboration measurement, inner source metrics

Reference: Maximilian Capraro, Michael Dorner, and Dirk Riehle. 2018. The Patch-Flow Method for Measuring Inner Source Collaboration. In MSR ’18: 15th International Conference on Mining Software Repositories , May 28–29, 2018, Gothenburg, Sweden. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 11 pages.

A preprint of the paper is available here as a PDF file.