Getting Started With Open Source Governance (Jeff McAffer, IEEE Computer Column)

I’m happy to report that the fourth article in the new Open Source Expanded column of IEEE Computer has been published.

TitleGetting Started With Open Source Governance
KeywordsCompanies, Licenses, Security, Software, Law
AuthorsJeff McAffer, GitHub
PublicationComputer vol. 52 (October 2019), pp. 92-96

Abstract: Using and managing open source is essential in modern software development. Here we lay out a framework for thinking about open source engagement and highlight the key steps in getting started.

As always, the article is freely available (local copy).

Also, check out the full list of articles.

Industry Best Practices for Corporate Open Sourcing (HICSS 53)

Abstract: Companies usually don’t share the source code for the software they develop. While this approach is justified in software that constitutes differentiating intellectual property, proprietary development can lead to redundant development and other opportunity costs. In response, companies are increasingly open sourcing some if not all of their non-differentiating software. Given the limited academic research on this emerging topic, we bridge the gap between industry and academia by taking a practice-based approach. We investigate why and how companies engage in corporate open sourcing. We take an exploratory case study approach. Our cases are four companies with multi-billion-dollar revenues each: A major e-commerce company based in Germany; a leading social networking service company based in the USA; a cloud computing software company based in the USA; and a manufacturing and media software company based in the USA. We present the resulting theory in an actionable format of state-of-the-art best practice patterns.

Reference: Harutyunyan, N., Riehle, D., & Sathya, G. (2020). Industry Best Practices for Corporate Open Sourcing. In Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2020), to appear.

Download: The paper is available as a PDF file.

The JDownloader Immune System for Continuous Deployment (HICSS 53)

Abstract: Continuous deployment can reduce the time from a source code change to a newly deployed application significantly. Increased innovation speed can make all the difference in a competitive market situation. However, deploying at high frequency requires high speeds of discovering bugs in the deployed software. Using the JDownloader file download manager as our example, we present a fitness model to evaluate a continuously deployed software during operation for expected behavior, present the design and implementation of a monitoring component, and evaluate the model and its implementation using data from JDownloader’s multi-million member strong user base. Our evaluation finds that there had been thousands of undetected bugs, and that newly created bugs can be detected and reported 16 times faster than before.

Keywords: Continuous deployment, continuous delivery, immune system

Reference: Rechenmacher, T., Riehle, D., & Weber, M. (2020). The JDownloader Immune System for Continuous Deployment. In Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2020), to appear.

Download: The paper is available a PDF file.

What Microservices Can Learn From Enterprise Information Integration (HICSS 53)

Abstract: Microservices are an architectural style in which each service typically provides the complete stack of functions from a user or application programming interface through a domain model all the way to storage for that model. As a consequence, querying conjunct data from different microservices becomes a non-trivial engineering task. In this article, we review older and established general data integration theory in the enterprise context and then compare current microservice practice with enterprise information integration (EII) theory as an established approach to data integration. We find that microservices do not utilize all possible approaches for data integration that are common in enterprises. Specifically, microservices use middleware only partially and databases are not used at all to integrate data. Therefore, we further investigate whether, when, and how these two approaches can be used in a microservices context and present our findings. With our findings, we (i) clear the way for fellow researchers to investigate and improve unused integration strategies with microservices and (ii) raise the awareness of practitioners that some integration strategies may not work out of the box with microservices as they do in EII.

Keywords: Microservices, data integration, enterprise Information integration, EII

Reference: Schwarz, G. & Riehle, D. (2020). What Microservices Can Learn From Enterprise Information Integration. In Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2020), to appear.

Download: The paper is available a PDF file.

Supporting Interview Analysis with Autocoding (HICSS 53)

Abstract: Interview analysis is a technique employed in qualitative research. Researchers annotate (code) interview transcriptions, often with the help of Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS). The tools available today largely replicate the manual process of annotation. In this article, we demonstrate how to use natural language processing (NLP) to increase the reproducibility and traceability of the process of applying codes to text data. We integrated an existing commercial machine–learning (ML) based concept extraction service into an NLP pipeline independent of domain specific rules. We applied our prototype in three qualitative studies to evaluate its capabilities of supporting researchers by providing recommendations consistent with their initial work. Unlike rule based approaches, our process can be applied to interviews from any domain, without additional burden to the researcher for creating a new ruleset. Our work using three example data sets shows that this approach shows promise for a real–life application, but further research is needed.

Reference: Kaufmann, A., Barcomb, A., & Riehle, D. (2020). Supporting Interview Analysis with Autocoding. In Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2020), to appear.

Download: The paper is available a PDF file.

Managing Commercial Conflicts of Interest in Open Source Foundations (ICSOB 2019)

Abstract: When companies opt to open source their software, they may choose to offer the project to an open source foundation. Donating the software to an open source foundation offers a number of advantages, such as access to the foundation’s existing tools and project management. However, in donating the software, the company relinquishes control of the software and grants other foundation members—including competitors—the same rights to the software. Using a multiple-case study research approach, this paper examines how foundations manage conflicts of interest in the open sourcing donation scenario. We find that foundations primarily use a set of well-defined mechanisms to prevent such conflicts from arising, and that the use of these mechanisms can depend on the foundation type.

Keywords: Open source foundations, sponsored open source, commercial open source, open source software, conflicts of interest

Reference: Weikert, F., Riehle, D., & Barcomb, A. (2019). Managing Commercial Conflicts of Interest in Open Source Foundations. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Software Business (ICSOB 2019). Springer Verlag.

The paper is available as a PDF file.

Industry Requirements for FLOSS Governance Tools to Facilitate the Use of Open Source Software in Commercial Products

Abstract: Virtually all software products incorporate free/libre and open source software (FLOSS) components. However, ungoverned use of FLOSS components can result in legal and nancial risks, and risks to a rm’s intellectual property. To avoid these risks, companies must govern their FLOSS use through open source governance processes and by following industry best practices. A particular challenge is license compliance. To manage the complexity of governance and compliance, companies should use tools and well-de ned processes. This paper investigates and presents industry requirements for FLOSS governance tools, followed by an evaluation of the suggested requirements. We chose eleven companies with an advanced understanding of open source governance and interviewed their FLOSS governance experts to derive a theory of industry requirements for tooling. We list tool requirements on tracking and reuse of FLOSS components, license compliance, search and selection of components, and architecture model for software products. For practical relevance, we cast our theory as a requirements speci cation for FLOSS governance tools. We then analyzed the features of leading governance tools and used this analysis to evaluate two categories of our theory: FLOSS license scanning and FLOSS components in product bills of materials.

Keywords: Open Source Software, FLOSS, FOSS, Open Source Governance, FLOSS governance tools, company requirements for FLOSS tools.

Reference: Harutyunyan, N., Bauer, A., & Riehle, D. (2019). Industry Requirements for FLOSS Governance Tools to Facilitate the Use of Open Source Software in Commercial Products. Journal of Systems and Software vol. 158 (2019), 110390.

A preprint of the paper is available as a PDF file. This article is an expanded version, per invitation, of our OSS 2018 paper.

Open Source License Compliance–Why and How? (Hendrik Schoettle, IEEE Computer Column)

I’m happy to report that the third article in the new Open Source Expanded column of IEEE Computer has been published.

TitleOpen Source License Compliance–Why and How?
KeywordsOpen Source Software, Licenses, Software Packages
AuthorsHendrik Schoettle, Osborne Clarke, Munich, Germany
PublicationComputer vol. 52 (August 2019), pp. 63-67

Abstract: Compliance with open source software (OSS) license requirements is necessary but often overlooked. This article explains how OSS license compliance differs from compliance with commercial software licenses, why it is necessary even though OSS is generally free, and what requirements have to be met with OSS.

As always, the article is freely available (local copy).

Also, check out the full list of articles.

Open Source License Compliance in Software Supply Chains

Abstract: Almost all software products today include open-source components. However, the obligations that open-source licenses put on their users can be difficult or undesirable to comply with. As a consequence, software vendors and related companies need to govern the process by which open-source components are included in their products. A key process of such open-source governance is license clearance, that is, the process by which a company decides whether a particular component’s license is acceptable for use in its products. In this article, we discuss this process, review the challenges it poses to software vendors, and provide unanswered research questions that result from it.

Keywords: Open source licenses, open source license compliance, software supply chain, product model

Reference: Riehle, D., & Harutyunyan, N. (2019). Open-Source License Compliance in Software Supply Chains. In Fitzgerald B., Mockus A., Zhou M. (eds) Towards Engineering Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) Ecosystems for Impact and Sustainability. Springer, Singapore, pp. 83-95.

A preprint of the paper is available as a PDF file and as a web page. Alternatively, you can pay Springer for the final version.

Getting Started with FLOSS Governance and Compliance in Companies (OpenSym 2019)

Abstract: Commercial use of open source software is on the rise as more companies realize the benefits of using FLOSS components in their products. At the same time, the ungoverned use of such components can result in legal, financial, intellectual property, and other risks. To mitigate these risks, companies must govern their use of open source through appropriate processes. This paper presents an initial theory of industry best practices on getting started with open source governance and compliance, focusing on private companies. Through a qualitative survey, we conducted and analyzed 15 expert interviews in companies with advanced capabilities in open source governance. We also studied practitioner reports on existing practices for introducing FLOSS governance processes. We cast our resulting initial theory in the actionable format of best practice patterns that, when combined, form a practical handbook of getting started with FLOSS governance in private companies.

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